Horton CA, Alver B, Park PJ. GiniQC: a measure for quantifying noise in single-cell Hi-C data [Internet]. Bioinformatics 2020; Publisher's VersionAbstract
Single-cell Hi-C (scHi-C) allows the study of cell-to-cell variability in chromatin structure and dynamics. However, the high level of noise inherent in current scHi-C protocols necessitates careful assessment of data quality before biological conclusions can be drawn. Here we present GiniQC, which quantifies unevenness in the distribution of inter-chromosomal reads in the scHi-C contact matrix to measure the level of noise. Our examples show the utility of GiniQC in assessing the quality of scHi-C data as a complement to existing quality control measures. We also demonstrate how GiniQC can help inform the impact of various data processing steps on data quality.
Lee S*, Lee S*, Ouellette S, Park W-Y, Lee EA**, Park PJ**. NGSCheckMate: software for validating sample identity in next-generation sequencing studies within and across data types. Nucleic Acids Res 2017;Abstract

In many next-generation sequencing (NGS) studies, multiple samples or data types are profiled for each individual. An important quality control (QC) step in these studies is to ensure that datasets from the same subject are properly paired. Given the heterogeneity of data types, file types and sequencing depths in a multi-dimensional study, a robust program that provides a standardized metric for genotype comparisons would be useful. Here, we describe NGSCheckMate, a user-friendly software package for verifying sample identities from FASTQ, BAM or VCF files. This tool uses a model-based method to compare allele read fractions at known single-nucleotide polymorphisms, considering depth-dependent behavior of similarity metrics for identical and unrelated samples. Our evaluation shows that NGSCheckMate is effective for a variety of data types, including exome sequencing, whole-genome sequencing, RNA-seq, ChIP-seq, targeted sequencing and single-cell whole-genome sequencing, with a minimal requirement for sequencing depth (>0.5X). An alignment-free module can be run directly on FASTQ files for a quick initial check. We recommend using this software as a QC step in NGS studies. AVAILABILITY:

Lee S*, Seo CH*, Alver BH, Hyuk Lee S, Park PJ. EMSAR: estimation of transcript abundance from RNA-seq data by mappability-based segmentation and reclustering. BMC Bioinformatics 2015;16(1):278.Abstract

BACKGROUND: RNA-seq has been widely used for genome-wide expression profiling. RNA-seq data typically consists of tens of millions of short sequenced reads from different transcripts. However, due to sequence similarity among genes and among isoforms, the source of a given read is often ambiguous. Existing approaches for estimating expression levels from RNA-seq reads tend to compromise between accuracy and computational cost. RESULTS: We introduce a new approach for quantifying transcript abundance from RNA-seq data. EMSAR (Estimation by Mappability-based Segmentation And Reclustering) groups reads according to the set of transcripts to which they are mapped and finds maximum likelihood estimates using a joint Poisson model for each optimal set of segments of transcripts. The method uses nearly all mapped reads, including those mapped to multiple genes. With an efficient transcriptome indexing based on modified suffix arrays, EMSAR minimizes the use of CPU time and memory while achieving accuracy comparable to the best existing methods. CONCLUSIONS: EMSAR is a method for quantifying transcripts from RNA-seq data with high accuracy and low computational cost. EMSAR is available at

Sohn K-A*, Ho JWK*, Djordjevic D, Jeong H-H, Park PJ**, Kim JH**. hiHMM: Bayesian non-parametric joint inference of chromatin state maps. Bioinformatics 2015;31(13):2066-74.Abstract

MOTIVATION: Genome-wide mapping of chromatin states is essential for defining regulatory elements and inferring their activities in eukaryotic genomes. A number of hidden Markov model (HMM)-based methods have been developed to infer chromatin state maps from genome-wide histone modification data for an individual genome. To perform a principled comparison of evolutionarily distant epigenomes, we must consider species-specific biases such as differences in genome size, strength of signal enrichment and co-occurrence patterns of histone modifications. RESULTS: Here, we present a new Bayesian non-parametric method called hierarchically linked infinite HMM (hiHMM) to jointly infer chromatin state maps in multiple genomes (different species, cell types and developmental stages) using genome-wide histone modification data. This flexible framework provides a new way to learn a consistent definition of chromatin states across multiple genomes, thus facilitating a direct comparison among them. We demonstrate the utility of this method using synthetic data as well as multiple modENCODE ChIP-seq datasets. CONCLUSION: The hierarchical and Bayesian non-parametric formulation in our approach is an important extension to the current set of methodologies for comparative chromatin landscape analysis. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: Source codes are available at Chromatin data are available at

Jung YL, Luquette LJ, Ho JWK, Ferrari F, Tolstorukov M, Minoda A, Issner R, Epstein CB, Karpen GH, Kuroda MI, Park PJ. Impact of sequencing depth in ChIP-seq experiments. Nucleic Acids Res 2014;42(9):e74.Abstract

In a chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq) experiment, an important consideration in experimental design is the minimum number of sequenced reads required to obtain statistically significant results. We present an extensive evaluation of the impact of sequencing depth on identification of enriched regions for key histone modifications (H3K4me3, H3K36me3, H3K27me3 and H3K9me2/me3) using deep-sequenced datasets in human and fly. We propose to define sufficient sequencing depth as the number of reads at which detected enrichment regions increase <1% for an additional million reads. Although the required depth depends on the nature of the mark and the state of the cell in each experiment, we observe that sufficient depth is often reached at <20 million reads for fly. For human, there are no clear saturation points for the examined datasets, but our analysis suggests 40-50 million reads as a practical minimum for most marks. We also devise a mathematical model to estimate the sufficient depth and total genomic coverage of a mark. Lastly, we find that the five algorithms tested do not agree well for broad enrichment profiles, especially at lower depths. Our findings suggest that sufficient sequencing depth and an appropriate peak-calling algorithm are essential for ensuring robustness of conclusions derived from ChIP-seq data.

Kharchenko PV, Tolstorukov MY, Park PJ. Design and analysis of ChIP-seq experiments for DNA-binding proteins. Nat Biotechnol 2008;26(12):1351-9.Abstract

Recent progress in massively parallel sequencing platforms has enabled genome-wide characterization of DNA-associated proteins using the combination of chromatin immunoprecipitation and sequencing (ChIP-seq). Although a variety of methods exist for analysis of the established alternative ChIP microarray (ChIP-chip), few approaches have been described for processing ChIP-seq data. To fill this gap, we propose an analysis pipeline specifically designed to detect protein-binding positions with high accuracy. Using previously reported data sets for three transcription factors, we illustrate methods for improving tag alignment and correcting for background signals. We compare the sensitivity and spatial precision of three peak detection algorithms with published methods, demonstrating gains in spatial precision when an asymmetric distribution of tags on positive and negative strands is considered. We also analyze the relationship between the depth of sequencing and characteristics of the detected binding positions, and provide a method for estimating the sequencing depth necessary for a desired coverage of protein binding sites.

Tolstorukov MY**, Choudhary V, Olson WK, Zhurkin VB, Park PJ**. nuScore: a web-interface for nucleosome positioning predictions. Bioinformatics 2008;24(12):1456-8.Abstract

SUMMARY: Sequence-directed mapping of nucleosome positions is of major biological interest. Here, we present a web-interface for estimation of the affinity of the histone core to DNA and prediction of nucleosome arrangement on a given sequence. Our approach is based on assessment of the energy cost of imposing the deformations required to wrap DNA around the histone surface. The interface allows the user to specify a number of options such as selecting from several structural templates for threading calculations and adding random sequences to the analysis. AVAILABILITY: The nuScore interface is freely available for use at CONTACT:; SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The site contains user manual, description of the methodology and examples.