Dosage compensation in Drosophila serves as a model system for understanding the targeting of chromatin-modifying complexes to their sites of action. The MSL (male-specific lethal) complex up-regulates transcription of the single male X chromosome, thereby equalizing levels of transcription of X-linked genes between the sexes. Recruitment of the MSL complex to its binding sites on the male X chromosome requires each of the MSL proteins and at least one of the two large noncoding roX RNAs. To better understand how the MSL complex specifically targets the X chromosome, we have defined the binding using high-resolution genomic tiling arrays. Our results indicate that the MSL complex largely associates with transcribed genes that are present in clusters along the X chromosome. We hypothesize that after initial recruitment of the MSL complex to the X chromosome by unknown mechanisms, nascent transcripts or chromatin marks associated with active transcription attract the MSL complex to its final targets. Defining MSL-complex-binding sites will provide a tool for understanding functions of large noncoding RNAs that have remained elusive.